Publications des agents du Cirad


Porosity and soil water properties of Caribbean volcanic ash soils

Dorel M., Roger-Estrade J., Manichon H., Delvaux B.. 2000. Soil Use and Management, 16 : p. 133-140.

Volcanic ash soils are generally recognized as soils with excellent and stable physical properties. Here we characterized the porosity and water properties of volcanic ash Andosols and Nitisols from Guadeloupe in contrasting banana systems: (1) perennial crop without mechanization, (2) mechanized and regularly replanted crop. Desiccation from 1 kPa to 1550 kPa moisture tension leads to significant shrinkage in the Andosol, representing a 50% reduction of the void space. The clayey Nitisol exhibited limited shrinkage. Soil clods from the mechanized plots had a significantly smaller macroporosity than that from perennial plots. The soil hydraulic conductivity was also drastically reduced in the compacted layers of the mechanized plots. However, Nitisols appeared to be less affected than Andosols. Laboratory compression tests showed that both soils were susceptible to compaction at soil moisture close to field capacity. The shrinkage properties of the Andosol were due to micro-aggregation of non-crystalline components upon drying. The relative stability of the macroporosity in the Nitisol was probably related to the presence of stable microaggregates made of halloysite and iron oxide. Two major processes promote soil structure degradation in the Andosol under mechanized banana cropping, surface desiccation and soil compaction. They are both induced by repeated tillage after clearing. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : musa; propriété physicochimique du sol; eau du sol; système poral du sol; sol volcanique; andosol; rétention hydrique du sol; propriété hydraulique du sol; gestion du sol; caraïbes; guadeloupe; france; nitisol

Article (a-revue à facteur d'impact)

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