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Genetic improvement of plantains at CRBP : performance of black sigatoka resistant plantain hybrids

Tomekpé K., Noupadja P., Abadie C., Auboiron E., Tchango Tchango J.. 1998. In : Cardona M.J.G. (ed.), Carvajal S.L.B. (ed.), Salinas D.G.C. (ed.), Isaza R.G.B. (ed.). Seminar internacional sobre produccion de platano. Memorias. Quindio : Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria, p. 45-50. Seminario Internacional sobre Produccion de Platano, 1998-05-04/1998-05-08, Armenia Quindio (Colombie).

Black sigatoka (BS) is considered to be a major constraint to plantain production in Africa. The strategy to control this disease was generally based on the triploid/diploid crosses to recover resistant tetraploids . The improved AA hybrid, M53 and the wild banana Calcutta 4 were intensively used to incorporate durable resistance into the plantain cultivard.M53 is partially resistant (PR) to black sigatoka with parthenocarpic fruits while Calcutta 4 is highly resistant (HR) with small seeded fruits. Fifteen etraploid hybrids were selected from a segregating population for their resistance and their agronomic performances. They exhibit earlier flowering, stronger ratooning and higher yield with fuller fingers than their plantain parents. Unlike Cautta 4-derived tetraploid hybrids which have drooping leaves, the tetraploid progenies of M53 present a normalleaf habit. The best performing hybrids derive from M53. Among them, two have good cooking characteristics and good flavour and will be evaluated in several locations as potential substitutes for plantain landraces in Africa. The high resistance of Calcutta 4 was not observed in its tetraploid progenies. On the other hand, several M53-derived tetraploids were found to be HR or PR indicating that both resistances coexist in M53 and that some genetic interactions vary according to the resistance sources. Performing diploid hybrids were also selected from M53 progenies. They are seed-fertile and present good agronomic features. Current strategy using these interesting hybrids to develop AAB hybrids with plantain characteristics is presented.

Mots-clés : musa (plantains); hybride; résistance aux maladies; amélioration des plantes; hybridation; sélection; polyploïdie; afrique; cercosporiose noire

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