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Performance of adult oil palm clones

Cochard B., Durand-Gasselin T., Amblard P., Konan E.K., Gogor S.. 2000. In : Ariffin Darus (ed.), Chan Kook Weng (ed.), Sharifah Shahrul Syed Alwee (ed.). Emerging technologies and opportunities in the next millennium. Agriculture Conference : Proceedings of 1999 PORIM International Palm Oil Congress (PIPOC 1999). Kuala Lumpur : PORIM, p. 53-64. PORIM International Palm Oil Congress, 1999-02-01/1999-02-06, Kuala Lumpur (Malaisie).

Fifteen trials assessing the agronomic value of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) clones were planted between 1985 and 1989: nine at the La Mé station in the Ivory Coast, and six at Aek Kwasan and Bangun Bandar in Indonesia. The value of the clones depends on the initial value of the cross from which the ortet was selected, the degree of within-cross selection, the coefficient of phenotypic variation and the broad sense heritability of the selected characters. The last criterion can be estimated by comparing within-clone and within-cross variances or, for some characters, by ortet-clone regression. Broad sense heritability is high for FFB number (> 0.6) and mean weight (around 0.5). The heritability of FFB production is around 0.4. This confirms the estimations on young palms by Baudouin and Durand Gasselin (1991). Heritability is lower for characters such as the percent fruit/bunch and % oil/mesocarp (0.3), whereas the percent mesocarp/fruit proves to be highly heritable (0.6). Extraction rate heritability is around 0.2. That means an oil production heritability of 0.15, with a variation of 0 to 0.28. FFB production in the clones is higher than in the seed control. Three clones (5%) reveal FFB production that is 20% better than that of the control. On average, the clone extraction rate is 9% higher than that of the control and 7 clones (12%) have an extraction rate that is 20% higher than that of the control. The oil production of the best twelve clones is 27% higher than that of the control. These results are discussed, comparing the progress actually achieved with what was expected. The methodology applied to obtain high-yielding clones is discussed, as are ways of improving it.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; clone; expérimentation au champ; dispositif expérimental; caractère agronomique; héritabilité; adaptation; huile de palme; rendement; extraction; côte d'ivoire; indonésie; régime de palme

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