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Deep-fat frying of cassava : influence of raw material properties on chip quality

Vitrac O., Dufour D., Trystram G., Raoult-Wack A.L.. 2001. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81 (2) : p. 227-236.

DOI: 10.1002/1097-0010(20010115)81:2<227::AID-JSFA802>3.0.CO;2-4

Thirteen cultivars of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were used to obtain chips by deep frying slices of fresh cassava flesh in palm oil. The cultivars were representative of three different levels of four major characteristics (water, cyanide, starch and amylose content) in parenchyma. The effects of raw material composition and crop age (10 and 12 months) on mass transfer (dehydration and oil uptake), texture and colour were assessed for 1.5mm thick chips with a final water content of 0.04kg kg -¹ wet basis, corresponding to a water activity of about 0.3. Frying time varied from 70 to 90s and oil bath temperature from 140 to 160°C. All cultivars gave a high frying yield (>0.5 kg chips Kg-¹ fresh cassava) and a chip fat content of between 0.23 and 0.37 kg kg -¹ wet basis, with the highest frying yields and lowest fat contents being obtained from roots with the lowest water content and cyanide content. The intensity of darkening reactions increased in accordance with the level of reducing sugars, while the rigidity modulus of the chips was negatively correlated with the fibre content. The other characteristics (starch, amylose and total sugar content) were either not or poorly correlated with any of the chip quality parameters studied. Cyanoglucosides were only partially eliminated during frying (over 40% retention), so cultivars with a high cyanide content gave bitter chips. For a similar composition, drying rates and cooking rates were much lower when crop age increased. This could be attributed to a structural effect characterising crop age.

Mots-clés : manioc; friture; immersion; transfert de masse; qualité; propriété physicochimique; méthode d'optimisation; chips

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