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Customizing lipases for biocatalysis: a survey of chemical, physical and molecular biological approaches

Villeneuve P., Muderhwa J.M., Graille J., Haas M.J.. 2000. Journal of Molecular Catalysis. B, Enzymatic (9) : p. 113-148.

DOI: 10.1016/S1381-1177(99)00107-1

Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of fats and oils with subsequent release of free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, monoglycerols and glycerol. Besides this, they are also efficient in various reactions such as esterification, transesterification and aminolysis in organic solvents. Therefore, those enzymes are nowadays extensively studied for their potential industrial applications. Examples in the literature are numerous concerning their use in different fields such as resolution of racemic mixtures, synthesis of new surfactants and pharmaceuticals, oils and fats bioconversion and detergency applications. However, the drawbacks of the extensive use of lipases (and biocatalysts in general) compared to classical chemical catalysts can be found in the relatively low stability of enzyme in their native state as well as their prohibitive cost. Consequently, there is a great interest in methods trying to develop competitive biocatalysts for industrial applications by improvement of their catalytic properties such as activity, stability (pH or temperature range) or recycling capacity. Such improvement can be carried out by chemical physical or genetical modifications of the native enzyme. The present review will survey the different procedures that have been developed to enhance the properties of lipases. It will first focus on the physical modifications of the biocatalysts by adsorption on a carrier material, entrapment or microencapsulation. Chemical modifications and methods such as modification of amino acids residues, covalent coupling to a water-insoluble material, or formation of cross-linked lipase matrix, will also be reviewed. Finally, new and promising methods of lipases modifications by genetic engineering will be discussed.

Mots-clés : biocatalyseur; triacylglycérol lipase; hydrolyse enzymatique; hydrolase; génie génétique; acide gras; utilisation

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