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Cirad

Origine du ruissellement et de l'érosion sur sols bruns à halloysite de Martinique. Premières observations sous bananiers

Roose E., Khamsouk B., Lassoudière A., Dorel M.. 1999. Bulletin - Réseau Erosion (19) : p. 139-147. Colloque international L'homme et l'érosion, 1999-12-09/1999-12-19, Yaoundé (Cameroun).

Martinique island is susceptible to erosion, pollution of waters, sedimentation in the tourist sea sides. To produce more properly bananas, pineapple and sugarcanes without pollution, a research program has been developed to evaluate the efficiency of their rotation in space and time. Ten runoff plots and five lysimeters have been set up to evaluate the risks of erosion, runoff and leaching of fertilisers in banana/sugarcane/pineapple plantations submitted to conventional hard tillage practices or reduced tillage with litter of crops residues. Observations and five months measurement data are presented. As long as the topsoil is protected by a litter, runoff and erosion remained very low. On bare faflow, runoff and erosion do not increase regularly with the slope : the processes are changing from sheet erosion to fill erosion on 25% slope and mass movement on > 40% slope. The soil is so stable that the sediment remains aggregated as in the initial topsoil. There is no selective erosion of clay and loam. Fighting erosion could be organised by the management of litter, weeds and reducing cultural practices and by dispersing the runoff energy. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : musa; type de sol; ruissellement; Érosion; sorption du sol; infiltration; forêt tropicale; compactage du sol; martinique; france; halloysite

Article (c-revue sans comité de lecture)

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