Publications des agents du Cirad


Performance of oil palm clones

Durand-Gasselin T., Konan E.K., Baudouin L., Noiret J.M.. 1999. In : Rajanaidu Nookiah (ed.), Jalani B.S. (ed.). Proceedings of the seminar on worldwide performance of DxP oil palm planting materials, clones and interspecific hybrids. Kuala Lumpur : PORIM, p. 151-170. Seminar on Worldwide Performance of DxP Oil Palm Planting Materials, Clones and Interspecific Hybrids, 1995-06-05/1995-06-06, Barranquilla (Colombie).

The ORSTOM-CIRAD procedure for somatic embryogenesis of oil palm has now been routinely used by five production units for almost 15 years. Over 3,000 hectares have been planted by 70 companies or research centres using 450 clones. Results are now available from clonal trials making it possible to estimate the performances of clones. This paper looks at oil production data for 28 clones from 7 trials planted before 1989 in the Ivory Coast (IDEFOR) and Indonesia (SOCFINDO). Two clones were from unselected ortets and 26 from ortets of good progenies from the first cycle reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) scheme. As expected, the mean oil production of clones exceeded the standard cross by 12%. The improvement was 27% for the 10 best clones and 44% for the best. Compared to commercial D x P planting material from second cycle RRS, the. improvements were, respectively, 13% and 28%. The average productivity of clones derived from good progenies of the second cycle RRS will be much higher than clones from the first cycle, and the frequency of good clones will be increased. The first results for clones from the second cycle are in acordance with this view. As clones show different susceptibilities to Ganoderma, Fusarium and blast, it is assumed that selection for resistance to these diseases will be easier. More and more data indicate that the field performances of oil palm clones are promising. Improvements of 20% to 30% over seedling planting materials are easily achieved. The main problem remains trueness-to-type, especially with the incidence of mantled abnormality. Further development of clonal planting material needs an in vitro test for conformity.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; clone; performance de culture; multiplication végétative; héritabilité; trouble génétique; fleur; rendement des cultures; résistance aux organismes nuisibles; côte d'ivoire; indonésie

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