Publications des agents du Cirad


Oil palm biotechnology: progress and prospects

Rival A., Tregear J., Jaligot E., Morcillo F., Aberlenc F., Billotte N., Richaud F., Beulé T., Borgel A., Duval Y.. 2001. OCL. Oléagineux Corps gras Lipides, 8 (4) : p. 295-306.

DOI: 10.1051/ocl.2001.0295

Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR) based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; elaeis oleifera; méthode d'amélioration génétique; micropropagation; embryogénèse somatique; variation somaclonale; génome; marqueur génétique; variation génétique; carte génétique; expression des gènes; sélection; Épigénétique

Documents associés

Article (a-revue à facteur d'impact)

Agents Cirad, auteurs de cette publication :