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Perennial crops trigger land-use and land-tenure changes in Indonesia : (Example of the province of West-Kalimantan)

Penot E., Wibawa G., Geissler C.. 2002. In : Regional workshop on land issues, Pnomh Penh, Cambodia, June 04-06, 2002. s.l. : s.n., 15-7 p.. numero_rapport: TERA-THI 105/01; numero_rapport: TERA-THI 126/01. Regional Workshop on Land Issues in Asia, 2002-06-04/2002-06-06, Phnom Penh (Cambodge).

In Indonesia a double phenomenon can be observed with progressive changes in land-tenure and land-use linked with the striking increase in the number of treecrops, in particular rubber and oil palm, in the "outer islands" (Mainly Sumatra and Kalimantan). The individualisation of farmers' behaviour with regard to land property and control has resulted in a progressive decrease in collective land management that has been observed over a period of many years. "Right of use" which traditionally applied in the case of tree-crops has changed into to a kind of "private property" very close to that practiced in western countries. The two main stakeholders involved in these changes are the State and farmers. There are also two types of opposing land legislation- official legislation and traditional legislation (Adat). Land-use in the province of West Kalimantan has been sharply modified in the last 15 years. Local forest, classified as "productive forests" have been heavily logged and later classified as "conversion forests" that enabled the government to distribute such land to private or semi-private companies in order to establish plantations (oil palm and Acacia mangium). Government policy has clearly been clearly o the development of an "estate secto" to the detriment of the traditional land rights of local communities (adat). The government has also implemented smallholder projects; rubber and oil palm projects (NES/PIR, SRDP-TCSDP) as well as transmigration projects. The land legally controlled by local communities decreased from 52% in 1985 to 29% of the total district area today leading to an alarming situation that could lead in to land conflicts between smallholders and Estates in the near future. Legal land-use distribution to the estate sector is very alarming for local communities, but in practice, real land-use still leaves room for local communities. This study analyses potential sources of land conflicts between stakeholders. Factors that induce change are thus the following: i) changes in overall needs and income, ii) a reduction in agricultural risk, iii) an increase in the total productivity of farming systems, iv) optimisation of labour and v) minimisation of capital investment. Land and land tenure have changed due to the particular needs of tree-crops as well as the need for land securement for smallholders.

Mots-clés : utilisation des terres; mode de faire-valoir; plantations; forêt; plante pérenne; hevea brasiliensis; elaeis guineensis; indonésie; kalimantan; système foncier

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