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N available for maize (Zea mais) on living cover crops of Chromolaena odorata and Pueraria phaseoloides in forest areas of Côte d'Ivoire

Autfray P., Oliver R.. 2001. In : Garcia-Torres Luis (ed.), Benites José (ed.), Martinez-Vilela Armando (ed.). Conservation agriculture, a worldwide challenge : Ist World congress on conservation agriculture. Cordoba : XUL, p. 395-399. Congrès mondial d'agriculture de conservation. 1, 2001-10-01/2001-10-05, Madrid (Espagne).

Chromolaena odorata, a wild species, and Pueraria phaseoloides, an introduced species, were compared as fallow plants over 6 and 18 month periods, in a permanent annual sequence with a 4-month maize (Zea mais) cropping cycle. On average, P. phaseoloides restored more N than C. odorata (145 kg ha-1 compared to 87 for 6-month fallows, and 245 kg ha-1 compared to 178 for 18-month fallows). Short-term P. phaseoloides fallows promoted nitrogen mineralization by soil and N uptake (N export from grain maize, restoration via maize mulch). Cropping systems with 18- month live fallowed plant cover were not more productive than the slash-and-burn control with C. odorata cover. After 4 years, organic N supplies in the surface horizon declined for systems with 6-month fallows, and were generally higher with C. odorata cover.

Mots-clés : zea mays; chromolaena odorata; pueraria phaseoloides; azote; plante de couverture; minéralisation; système jachère; jachère; côte d'ivoire; côte d'ivoire centre

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