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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-actived human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kB activity

Keiss H.P., Dirsch V.M., Hartung T., Haffner T., Trueman L., Auger J., Kahane R., Vollmar A.M.. 2003. Journal of Nutrition, 133 (7) : p. 2171-2175.

DOI: 10.1093/jn/133.7.2171

Garlic is proposed to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. This paper shows that garlic powder extracts (GPE) and single garlic metabolites modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine levels in human whole blood. GPE-altered cytokine levels in human blood sample supernatants reduced nuclear factor (NF)-kB activity in human cells exposed to these samples. Pretreatment with GPE (100 mg/L) reduced LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1 [bêta] from 15.7 ± 5.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2 [mu]g/L and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] from 8.8 ± 2.4 to 3.9 ± 0.8 [mu]g/L, respectively, whereas the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was unchanged. The garlic metabolite diallydisulfide (1-100 [mu]mol/L) also significantly reduced IL-1[bêta] and TNF-[alpha]. Interestingly, exposure of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) cells to GPE-treated blood sample supernatants (10 or 100 mg/L) reduced NF-K13 activity compared with cells exposed to untreated blood supernatants as measured by a NF-kB-driven luciferase reporter gene assay. Blood samples treated with extract obtained from unfertilized garlic (100 mg1L) reduced NF-kB activity by 25%, whereas blood samples treated with sulfur-fertilized garlic extracts (100 mg/L) lowered NF-kB activity by 41%. In summary, garlic may indeed promote an anti-inflammatory environment by cytokine modulation in human blood that leads to an overall inhibition of NF-kB activity in the surrounding tissue.

Mots-clés : allium sativum; ail; cytokine; immunologie; propriété pharmacologique; sang; genre humain

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