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Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccines, historic highlights, present situation and hopes

Thiaucourt F., Dedieu L., Maillard J.C., Bonnet P., Lesnoff M., Laval G., Provost A.. 2003. In : Brown F. (ed.), Roth J. (ed.). Vaccines for OIE list A and emerging animal diseases : International Symposium, Ames, Iowa, September 2002, proceedings. Bâle : Karger, p. 147-160. (Developments in biologicals, 114). International Symposium on Vaccines for OIE list A and Emerging Animal Diseases, 2002-09-16/2002-09-18, Ames (Etats-Unis).

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a contagious infection of cattle caused by a mycoplasma, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC). It induces lesions of pleuropneumonia in acute cases and the formation of pulmonary "sequestra" in chronic cases. The disease is prevalent mostly in Africa, where it is responsible for high losses, but it has also been sporadically present in Southern Europe until 1999. Vaccination is now prohibited in most countries except in Africa. An empirical "inoculation" procedure was developed as early as 1852 in Europe but it may have been used even earlier in Africa. The inoculation of pleural fluid was performed at the tip of the tail in Europe and on the bridge of the nose in Africa. It conferred good protection but induced a high number of fatal cases. Various inactivated preparations have been tested in the past with inconclusive results leading sometime to some protection and some other time to a sensitisation of the immunised animals. Such preparations have never been used in the field. Attenuated MmmSC strains have been developed in the 1950s and used extensively in the field both in Africa and Australia. The best known vaccine strains are KH3J, T1/44 and T1 sr. Vaccination campaigns have succeeded in reducing considerably the CBPP prevalence in these two continents but eradication was achieved in Australia only by switching to strict measures of animal movement control and a stamping-out policy. The search for new CBPP vaccines has become a major issue for African countries that are facing an increase in outbreaks. The rationale for this search is based on a better understanding of the mycoplasma virulence mechanisms that could lead to a targeted attenuation of MmmSC strains. It is also based on a better understanding of the bovine immune response that may be driven to a pathogenic inflammatory response or conversely to a better balanced response leading to protection.

Mots-clés : péripneumonie contagieuse bovine; vaccin; mycoplasma mycoides

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