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Resistance to black leaf streak disease of banana : studies on efficiency and durability of partial resistance

Abadie C., El Hadrami A., Pignolet L., Nguidjo O., Zapater M.F., Carlier J.. 2003. In : ISPP. Solving problems in the real world : ICPP 2003, 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology, 2-7 February 2003, Christchurch, New-Zealand. s.l. : s.n., 1 p.. International Congress of Plant Pathology. 8, 2003-02-02/2003-02-07, Christchurch (Nouvelle-Zélande).

Black leaf streak disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most destructive leaf disease of bananas. Genetic improvement for partial resistance appears as the most appropriate control. As a high level of diversity is maintained in pathogen populations, partial resistance supposed durable is used instead of total resistance in breeding programmes. The aim of our studies is to evaluate the efficiency and durability of partial resistance to assist breeding programmes. To achieve this objective, three complementary approaches were undertaken: (i) Characterisation of partial resistance was realised by measuring the fungus life cycle parameters under both field and controlled conditions. The evaluation of 13 partial resistant varieties showed the existence of several components of resistance acting on different stages of the infectious cycle; (ii) The efficiency of two resistant varieties which differ for two resistance components (infection efficacy, ascospores production) were studied using epidemiological parameters. No difference in disease spatial dispersion and incidence was observed between resistant varieties during the first year whereas low differences in disease severity were measured. Moreover, these differences increased within years. These results could be explained by differences in production endogeneous inoculum. Experiments are conduced to measure endogeneous inoculum in each field to confirm this hypothesis; (iii) Resistance durability is being studied through analysis of pathogen populations evolution. Molecular characterisation using CAPS markers was used on populations isolated after 6 and 25 months of cultivation. Genetic results will be discussed. Pathogenicity variability was undergone to assess an eventual selective effect of resistant bananas on pathogen populations. (Texte intégral)

Mots-clés : musa; maladie des plantes; résistance aux maladies; mycosphaerella fijiensis; pouvoir pathogène; maladie fongique; amélioration des plantes; durabilité; maladie des raies noires

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