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Sustainable development of peri-urban agriculture in South-East Asia project. Spatial and industrial organization of vegetable market in Hanoï

Hoang Bang An, Bui Thi Thai, Le Nhu Thinh, Dang Dinh Dam, Ngo V.N., Le Thuy Hang, Trinh Quang Thoai, Moustier P.. 2003. Hanoï : RIFAV, 57 p..

Thanks to improving living standards, Vietnamese have been consuming increasing amounts of fresh vegetable over the past ten years. Yet, the market for fresh vegetable seems quite sketchy and disorganized. The aim of this research is to provide a more transparent picture of this apparently chaotic market by addressing questions related to the origin of the vegetable sold in Ha Noi at different times of the year. This research is focused on the means of transportation, the organization of the vegetable marketing chains, the relationship between seasonality, the geographic origin of vegetables and the marketing chain, the atomicity of the market and its consequences in terms of organization, and the opportunities for developing off-season production for various vegetables. To answer such questions, surveys were conducted in March, June, August and November, in order to take into account changes in the origin of the products, and in the organization of the supply chain. The interviews focused on the different actors participating in Ha Noi's main vegetable markets; e.g. producers (if they sold vegetables themselves), wholesalers, assemblers, retailers, etc. The survey was carried out on the main wholesale or producer markets, i.e. markets on which vegetable products are exchanged overnight between traders, wholesalers, assemblers and/ or producers (who bring the products from the main production areas), and the retailers (who sell them to the urbanites during the day). Seven retail markets were surveyed during the daytime. The main results of the survey indicate that: Almost all leafy vegetables sold in Ha Noi are grown close to the city: 95 -100% of the lettuce comes from less than 20 km away, and 73-100% of the kangkong is grown within 10 km from the city. Although leafy vegetables can be grown throughout the year, their yield may decrease during the cold season. Yet, these vegetables never come from outside the Red River Delta. Most temperate vegetables (carrot, tomato, and headed cabbage) sold in Ha Noi come from the Red River Delta during the cold season. When the climatic conditions are favourable (in March and November), 75% (resp. 90%) of the tomatoes (resp. cabbages) sold in Ha Noi come from less than 30 km away from the city. Changes in the origin of the temperate vegetables sold in Ha Noi occur mainly during the hot and wet season (July-September), with vegetables coming from as far as Son La and Lam Dong provinces or China (resp. 6%, 14% and 80% of all tomatoes sold in August). Most vegetables are transported to the market with two-wheeled vehicles (bicycles and motorcycles). Trucks transport a very small share of the total amount of vegetables (1%). Producers represent 43% (August) to 65% (March) of the sellers present on the markets. One quarter of the sellers stop selling vegetables on the market several months per year. 81% of these sellers are producers, who quit selling in the hot wet season because they do not have enough products to sell (84%), and because they are busy in their farm (40%). During the high season, most temperate vegetables are either directly brought by the farmers to the markets, or sold by the farmers to the traders present on the markets. As the season fades away, the farmers become less present: tomato producers represent 79% of the sellers present on the night markets in November, are completely absent in June (tomatoes are then sold by traders supplied by wholesalers), and represent 11% of the sellers in June. Leafy vegetables are mainly sold by the producers. themselves, yet traders are more present at some times of the year. In March, June, August and November, all kangkong sellers present on Ha Noi wholesale markets are farmers who come to the markets with their production and sometimes that of other farmers. Choysum is sold mainly by the producers in March (81%) and June (67%), while 85% of the lettuce sold between March and November is sold directly by the producers. Seasonality ...
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