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Production and distribution of quality oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seeds

Cochard B., Adon B., Amblard P., Kouamé Kouamé R., Durand-Gasselin T.. 2001. In : 26th International seed test association congress, 18 - 21 June 2001, Angers, France. s.l. : s.n., 12 p.. International Seed Test Association Congress. 26, 2001-06-18/2001-06-21, Angers (France).

Palm oil is on the verge of becoming the world's leading source of vegetable fats and oils. Oil palm is cultivated on 9 million hectares. Replanting and extension programmes, which remain highly active, amount to a market of around 150 million seeds per year. Oil palm seeds are hybrids of full-sib families. However, the floral biology of the oil palm, which is a temporal monoecious plant, makes it necessary to carry out crosses by controlled pollination. A legitimacy defect causes yields to slump by more than 50%. That is why quality control checks are carried out at the main stages of seed production protocols. The checks involve the identity of the parents, the quality of male and female inflorescence isolation, pollen quality and embryo quality in the seeds produced. Furthermore, oil palm seeds are of the semi-recalcitrant type and their germination is difficult to obtain. This makes their distribution highly particular, since they have to be supplied to growers already germinated. Achieving synchronized germination requires substantial installations. The quality of the sprout obtained is checked seed by seed before distribution to growers. The quality and production potential of seeds can only be guaranteed if production and quality control procedures are strictly respected.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; matériau de multiplication; inbreeding; pollinisation; qualité; semence; contrôle de qualité

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