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Analysis of the milling reduction of bread wheat farina: Physical and biochemical characterisation

Greffeuille V., Abécassis J., Barouh N., Villeneuve P., Mabille F., Bar L'Helgouac C., Lullien-Pellerin V.. 2007. Journal of Cereal Science, 45°1 : p. 97-105.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2006.07.003

The reduction of coarse farina during milling from five representative hard and soft French bread wheat cultivars was followed step by step. Particle size distribution of the milled products and energy required to dissociate wheat farina revealed large differences between cultivars. A grinding index (required energy to produce 1 kg of flour), K, corresponding to the energy necessary to obtain a given amount of flour, was found to be related with both grain hardness and vitreousness. Analysis of particle size distribution suggested a major influence of hardness in the production of fine particles <50 [mu]m during the reduction process. On the other hand, vitreousness appeared to impact on the extent of coarse particle size reduction. Differences in farina reduction behaviour of the wheats analysed were related to their endosperm mechanical properties as determined by compression tests and structural characteristics as measured by Hg intrusion porosity. vitreousness appeared to affect the endosperm extensibility and degree of porosity. The profile of the different lipid and protein classes in the reduction products of two cultivars showing opposite behaviour as well as different PINA/PINB ratio were determined. The results suggest that the most resistant parts of the grain are enriched in glycolipids, whereas phospholipids appear associated with the most friable parts, at least in the soft wheat grains tested.

Mots-clés : farine de blé; propriété physicochimique; composition des aliments; teneur en lipides; glycolipide; phosphatide; mouture; propriété mécanique; fermeté; endosperme; vitrosité; phospholipide

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