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West Nile virus in Guadeloupe : introduction, spread, and decrease in circulation level: 2002-2005

Lefrançois T., Blitvich B.J., Pradel J., Molia S., Vachiery N., Martinez D.. 2006. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1081 : p. 206-215. Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. 8, 2005-06-26/2005-07-01, Hanoi (Viet Nam).

DOI: 10.1196/annals.1373.025

In July 2002, a surveillance system was implemented on Guadeloupe to detect for the potential introduction and monitor the spread of West Nile virus (WNV). From 2002 to 2004, equines and chick-ens were serologically assayed for antibodies to WNV by IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), epitope-blocking ELISA, and plaque reduction neutralization tests. After introduction, probably through migratory birds at the end of 2001, many seroconversions occurred between July and October 2002 resulting in a high seroprevalence (19.3%) in equines in 2003. WNV circulation levels decreased dramatically in 2003 and 2004 as assessed by the absence of seroconversion in equine and the very low prevalence in chickens. This decrease coincided with a 7-month drought that presumably caused a decrease in vector populations. In 2005, a sentinel survey was implemented in equines and chickens placed in areas at high risk and the very low rate of seroconversion (1 equine out of 106, no chicken) demonstrated that WNV circulation is now occurring at a very low level.

Mots-clés : flavivirus; virose; fièvre; surveillance épidémiologique; cheval; poulet; animal indicateur; immunologie; Épidémiologie; guadeloupe; france; fièvre du nil occidental; Émergence

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