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Biodiversity of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., on coffee in Central America

Villain L., Sarah J.L., Hernandez A., Charmetant P., Bertrand B., Anthony F., Topart P., Lashermes P., Anzueto F., Carneiro R.M.D.G.. 2007. In : 21st International Conference on Coffee Science, Montpellier (France), 11th - 15th September 2006. Montpellier : ASIC, p. 1321-1324. Colloque Scientifique International sur le Café. 21, 2006-09-11/2006-09-15, Montpellier (France).

A survey was carried out in different coffee production regions of Central America (CA) in order to assess the biodiversity of root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., parasitizing coffee tree roots in this region. Populations extracted from roots were reared on tomato and coffee plants before realizing their diagnostic by isozyme electrophoresis (esterase phenotype, Est). M. exigua (Est E1, Rm: 1.5) appeared as the RKN with larger distribution on coffee in CA with large presence in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. This species was also observed in just one sample from Guatemala. The predominance of M paranaensis (Est P1, Rm: 1.32 and P2, Rm: 0.9, 1.32) on coffee in Guatemala was confirmed. This RKN has not been detected in others countries of CA. The recently described species on coffee in E1 Salvador, M. izalcoensis (Est I4 = Sa4, Rm: 0.86, 0.96, 1.24, 1.30), seems to be largely scattered in the south-eastern region of Izalco. The presence of M. arabicida (Est AR2, Rm: 1.20, 1.40) was confirmed in Turrialba valley in Costa Rica where it seems to be confined. Est Il phenotype (Rm: 1.0), characteristic of M incognita, was found for one population from E1 Salvador, one from Guatemala and several from three different regions of Costa Rica. These are the first based on esterase diagnostic reports of M. incognita on coffee in CA. M. arenaria (Est A2, Rm: 1.20, 1.30) was observed in several farms in the south-western region of Izalco in E1 Salvador. The new phenotype, Sa2 (Rm 1.20, 1.32), was also observed in the same region. M. hapla (Est H1, Rm: 1.1) was observed at two highland sites, one in Guatemala and the other one in E1 Salvador. New reports of M. mayaguensis (Est M2, Rm: 0.79, 1.08) on coffee in CA were observed: one from Costa Rica and the other one from Guatemala. Est A1 (Rm: 1.30), characteristic of M. arenaria and other species, was observed for one population from Guatemala, apparently very pathogenic on coffee. A large inter-specific diversity of RKN was observed on coffee in CA.

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