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The use of remote sensing for the ecological description of multi-host disease systems : un caso studio sul West Nile virus nel sud della Francia

Tran A., Gaidet N., L'Ambert G., Balenghien T., Balança G., Chevalier V., Soti V., Ivanes C., Etter E., Schaffner F., Baldet T., De La Rocque S.. 2007. Veterinaria Italiana, 43 (3) : p. 687-697. OIE International Conference on the Use of GIS in Veterinary Medicine, 2006-10-08/2006-10-11, Silvi Marina (Italie).

A large number of diseases that affect humans and animals are influenced by environmental factors. For multi-host infectious diseases, various species might be involved in the transmission process and the circulation of the pathogenic agent might result from the occurrence of certain specific association(s) between host and vector species. The need to characterise multi-species assemblage requires the development of new methods to derive integrated environmental risk factors. We have given remote sensing an ecological application to study the potential distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Rhone River delta in southern France. West Nile fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes. Satellite images were used to create an ecological map on land cover. Appropriate typology was employed for the description of both hosts and vectors distributions. A database including the probability of occurrence of bird and mosquito species in each landscape unit is linked to this ecological map. Spatial and temporal information on host and vector distribution is then integrated using geographic information systems. This integrative tool is designed to test some hypotheses on the epidemiological process of WNV and to identify environmental configurations and environmental changes likely to favour the emergence of WNV.

Mots-clés : Écologie animale; Épidémiologie; système d'information géographique; maladie des animaux; flavivirus; vecteur de maladie; france

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