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Genetic structure of the invasive pest Bemisia tabaci : Evidence of limited but persistent genetic differentiation in glasshouse populations

Dalmon A., Halkett F., Granier M., Delatte H., Peterschmitt M.. 2008. Heredity, 100 (1) : p. 316-325.

The geographic range of plant pests can be modified by the use of glasshouses. Bemisia tabaci, originating from warm to hot climates, has been shown to be a complex of distinct genetic groups with very limited gene flow. The genetic structure of this pest was studied in glasshouses in southern France, a region beyond the northern limit of its open-field development area in Europe. Seven microsatellite loci were scored in 22 populations sampled from various regions over 3 years. Two genetic groups were distinguished using a Bayesian clustering method and were assigned to the so-called biotypes B and Q using the gene sequence of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1). All but one population corresponded to biotype Q, even though only biotype B was previously reported. Despite the enclosed environment of glasshouses and their expected isolation due to low outdoor survival during the winter, only limited differentiation among biotype Q glasshouses was observed. A single sample site was notable for a decrease in expected heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles over the years. The lack of spatial genetic structure among biotype Q populations was indicative of a recent colonization event combined with large dispersal at all spatial scales. This migration pattern of biotype Q populations was further supported by additional CO1 sequences, since individuals from France, Asia and America exhibited 100% nucleotide identity. The evolution of genetic diversity observed in glasshouses in France is part of the worldwide invasion of biotype Q, which is discussed in light of human activities. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : culture sous abri; espèce envahissante; identification; variation génétique; biotype; microsatellite; marqueur génétique; plante de serre; bemisia tabaci; france

Thématique : Ravageurs des plantes

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