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Use of sentinel chickens to study the transmission dynamics of West Nile virus in a sahelian ecosystem

Chevalier V., Lancelot R., Diaite A., Mondet B., De Lamballerie X.. 2008. Epidemiology and Infection, 136 (4) : p. 525-528.

DOI: 10.1017/S0950268807008801

During the 2003 rainy season, a follow-up survey in sentinel chickens was undertaken to assess the seasonal transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in a sahelian ecosystem: the Ferlo (Senegal). The estimated incidence rate in chickens was 14% (95% CI 7-29), with a very low level of transmission between July and September, and a transmission peak occurring between September and October. Comparing these results with the estimate obtained from a previous transversal serological study performed on horses the same year in the same area, the relevance of sentinel chickens in estimating the WNV transmission rate is highlighted. Conventionally adult mosquito populations disappear during the dry season but WN disease was shown to be endemic in the study area. The mechanisms of virus maintenance are discussed.

Mots-clés : virus; flavivirus; transmission des maladies; surveillance épidémiologique; animal indicateur; poulet; immunologie; Épidémiologie; Écosystème; sénégal; sahel; Émergence; fièvre du nil occidental; ferlo

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