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Approaches towards screening for resistance to oil palm diseases : the examples of Fusarium Wilt and Ganoderma basal stem rot

De Franqueville H., Durand-Gasselin T.. 2005. In : Workshop on prioritizing Ganoderma research in oil palm, 28 march 2005, Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia. s.l. : s.n., 14 p.. Workshop on prioritizing Ganoderma research in oil palm, 2005-03-28, Bandar baru bangi (Indonésie).

Many oil palm plantations suffer from substantial losses due to various constraints. In Africa, Fusarium wilt is a major threat, while in Southeast Asia, basal and upper stem rot, caused by Ganoderma boninense, provoke lethal damages to the crop. Although some cultural practices can reduce the level of Fusarium wilt, planting with resistant material is the only viable method of control. Breeding for resistance is therefore of paramount importance and sources of resistance can be found within many origins of Elaeis guineensis and some populations of Elaeis oleifera. An early screening test, based on an artificial inoculation of the pathogen, is available to detect sources of resistance as well as sources of susceptibility. Results and information from this test are integrated in the breeding scheme. In the case of Ganoderma diseases, cultural practices are also known to reduce disease impact but field observations, carried out in North Sumatra, on a set of planting materials of known origin show consistent differences in susceptibility within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible, when compared to material of African origin. So far, there is no early screening test but research on a reliable way of artificial inoculation is under study. Pathology work is based on a wealth of well-described collections, containing sufficient diversity to enable steady genetic progress. This note tries to summarise what has been obtained with Fusarium wilt and what could be the prospect for Ganoderma diseases.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; elaeis oleifera; ganoderma; fusarium; sélection; résistance aux maladies; infection expérimentale; pratique culturale; asie du sud-est; afrique; ganoderma boninense

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