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Recent and up-coming strategies to counter plant-parasitic nematodes in banana cropping systems of the French West Indies

Risède J.M., Chabrier C., Dorel M., Rhino B., Lakhia K., Jenny C., Quénéhervé P.. 2009. In : Jones David R. (ed.), Van den Bergh Inge (ed.). Proceedings of the international symposium on recent advances in banana crop protection for sustainable production and improved livelihoods, White River, South Africa, September 10-14, 2007. Louvain : ISHS [Belgique], p. 117-127. (Acta Horticulturae, 828). International Symposium on recent advances in banana crop protection for sustainable production and improved livelihoods. 1, 2007-09-10/2007-09-14, White River (Afrique du Sud).

In the French West Indies, the productivity of export banana plantations is adversely affected by plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) including the endoparasitic species Radopholus similis (Pratylenchidae). In the last decades, control of PPNs was mainly based upon repeated applications of carbamate or organophosphate nematocides that are potentially toxic for human health and the environment. This paper describes a prophylaxis-based strategy, combining soil and plant sanitation that was developed in recent years to reduce dependence on chemical nematocides. Soil sanitation was implemented through a cleansing system based on glyphosate injection of banana plants before up-rooting. In addition, as a decision support tool, soil cleansing assessment biotests were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the method before planting new banana crops. Crops were initiated using tissue culture-derived plants of "Grande Naine" (AAA, Cavendish subgroup). In association with soil sanitation, this resulted in a reduction of 60% in nematocide use. The plant sanitation system is being modified by i/ selecting R. similis non-host rotational crops, such as perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), and forage grasses like Digitaria decumbens and Brachiaria humidicola; ii/ exploiting the existing variation in susceptibility to R. similis within Cavendish clones; and iii/ identifying R. similis resistant or weakly susceptible clones among improved banana hybrids developed by the CIRAD breeding programme. New initiatives to further enhance the PPN control method are also discussed. They include the promotion of techniques designed for improving management of crop residues, the identification of nematotoxic plants showing allelopathic effects against R. similis and the benefits from the preservation of soil biodiversity in banana cropping systems. Most of these approaches are being carried out in the framework of a European Commission-funded network of excellence, named ENDURE.

Mots-clés : musa; radopholus similis; pratylenchus coffeae; lutte intégrée; lutte antinématode; résistance aux organismes nuisibles; hybride; désinfection du sol; jachère; rotation culturale; antilles françaises; france

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