Publications des agents du Cirad


Hydrotelluric and industrial fluorosis survey in the dromedary camel in the south of Morocco

Diacono E., Faye B., Bengoumi M., Kessabi M.. 2008. In : Faye Bernard (ed.), Sinyavskiy Yuriy (ed.). Impact of pollution on animal products : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Impact of Pollution on Animal Products, Almaty, Kazakhstan 27-30 September 2007. Dordrecht : Springer [Pays-Bas], p. 85-90. (NATO Science for peace and security). NATO Advanced research wokshop on Impact of pollution on animal products, 2007-09-27/2007-09-30, Almaty (Kazakhstan).

DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8359-4_8

Morocco is the first country producer of phosphate in the world with a real potential of contamination of the environment and individuals there living by fluorine either by phosphate deposits (hydrotelluric fluorosis) and phosphate manufacturing plants (industrial fluorosis). This survey was achieved on 86 dromedaries in a region of the Sahara (Boujdour and Laâyoune) characterized by the presence of phosphate. In addition, blood, soil, water and plant samples were collected for the dosage of fluorine that has been achieved by potentiometric method. The mean fluorine content was below 0.47 ppm, 513 ppm and 4.8 ppm in water, soil and plants respectively. The provinces of Boujdour and Laâyoune are unscathed zones opposite the sources of fluorine contamination, as water, vegetation and soil. The mean plasma fluorine concentration was below 0.06 ppm, thus, the camels of these regions seem therefore also free of fluorine chronic intoxication. However the increased values of fluorine levels in the soil, vegetables, and the plasma of camels in the region of Boujdour can let suppose that this area is close to a source of fluorine contamination. Indeed, the province of Boujdour is located unless 200 km of Boukraa where is situated a processing plant of phosphates. Thus, according orientation and the strength of the present dominant winds in the region of Boujdour, we can give out the hypothesis that by winds are brought in the region of Boujdour of the fluorine particles coming from the region of Boukraa. These winds carrying particles of fluorine eliminated by the factory and also by the extraction of soil particles by erosion. This hypothesis can be verified by a survey establishing a gradient of pollution by fluorine cleared by the deposit or the processing plant of the phosphates considering the direction and the strength of the dominant winds in these regions.

Mots-clés : dromadaire; fluor; fluorimétrie; pollution du sol; plasma sanguin; pollution de l'eau; phosphate; industrie minière; maroc

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