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Baseline characterization of urban and peri-urban vegetable production in Phnom Penh

Em Huy, Moustier P.. 2005. Montpellier : CIRAD, 38 p..

The main objective of the study is to appraise the constraints and opportunities of farmers in relation with their location in urban and peri-urban areas (land pressure, markets, labour, etc). Some secondary data was gathered about vegetable production in Phnom Penh and surrounding provinces. Interviews with resource persons, and some field visits were organized, to review the state of available information. A farm survey was conducted on a sample of 397 farmers distributed in Mean Chey, Dangkor, Russey Keo, Kien Svay and Saang - that is 149 farms in the urban districts and 248 farms in the peri-urban districts. In the sample, 13 farms do not grow vegetables. In 2002, Phnom Penh had an estimated population of 1,191,668 heads. Out of a population of 980,003 people in 2001, 353,096, i.e., 37%, were farmers. The different farming areas have been identified and mapped, in particular, in Phnom Penh and Kandal municipality which supply the bulk of vegetables to Phnom Penh. The suitable seasons for cropping in Urban and Peri-urban areas are the wet season from May/June to August/September and the dry season from November/December to end to March/April. The crops grown by farmers are very diversified (more than 40 crops quoted by farmers, including 30 vegetables). The major vegetables are: cucumber, petsai, Chinese kale, lettuce and cauliflower. Vegetable farmers earn much higher incomes than non vegetable farmers; and incomes in peri-urban areas, where land size is higher, are also higher than in urban areas. Crop yields and use of manure are low. The major constraints, quoted by more than half farmers, are, by order of importance: marketing problems, input costs, land shortage, floods and water shortages. The survey shows some differences in the farm characteristics according to the districts. Dangkor is a specific district as it has more rice growing, more sandy land, less floods but more water shortages. Saang has more diversified crops than the other districts. Kien Svay is a district with average characteristics relative to the other ones, in particular in terms of water shortages and floods. Kandal (Saang and Kien Svay) districts are more suitable for vegetable production than urban districts (Phnom Penh) because of water sources (river/lake) and less constraints on land (when not considering Dangkor in the comparison of land constraints). To develop agricultural potential, irrigation systems should be improved to ensure water for cultivation. Additionally, proper agricultural technologies should be launched at the village level to enable less seasonal cultivation in and around Phnom Penh.

Mots-clés : légume; zone urbaine; zone périurbaine; donnée de production; enquête; analyse économique; agriculture urbaine; exploitation agricole familiale; cambodge

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