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Nematode dispersion by runoff water : Case study of Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne on nitisol under humid tropical conditions

Chabrier C., Carles C., Desrosiers C., Quénéhervé P., Cabidoche Y.M.. 2009. Applied Soil Ecology, 41 : p. 148-156.

To minimize application of nematicides in banana fields, crop systems have been developed in the French West Indies that combine fallow or rotation crops and nematode-free in vitro plants. After two to four years, populations of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis have developed enough to cause economic losses, leading banana growers to use nematicides. To understand how banana fields are recontaminated, we studied the dissemination of R. similis by water flow. At a 1-m scale, we analyzed the dispersion of R. similis under a rainfall simulator: we isolated a 1-m2 study plot, placed a R. similis suspension on the upstream soil surface, and simulated a 60 mm/h rainfall for 72 min. We collected soil samples every 10 cm downstream after 12 min of rainfall, and subsequently at 20-min intervals, and extracted the nematodes using a Seinhorst elutriator and then a Baermann funnel. Our results showed that the nematode dissemination follows an inverse exponential law, and depends more on soil moisture at the beginning of rainfall than on the length of rainfall: in fresh soil, 69-80% of the R. similis recovered were found less than 10 cm downstream from the nematode inoculation line, whereas in wetted soil, 76-85% of the recovered individuals were collected in the outlet tub located downstream from the apparatus. This passive dissemination model partially explains the distance covered by individual nematodes but not the low percentage of motile nematodes recovered in the outlet tub (10% and 36% in fresh and wet soils) compared to the percentage of motile nematodes found in the soil (80% and 84% in fresh and wet soils). Indeed, water runoff is likely to disseminate R. similis over long distances only when soil moisture is close to field capacity. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : ruissellement; radopholus similis; musa; martinique

Thématique : Ravageurs des plantes

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