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Evidence of genetically resistant animals to Pestle des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Avian Influenza (AI) in isolated farmed animal populations in the mountainous regions of North Vietnam

Maillard J.C., Phan Van K., Nguyen Tung, Nhu Van Thu, Berthouly C., Libeau G., Kwiatek O.. 2008. Journal of Animal Science and Technology : p. 164-167. International Workshop on the Domesticated Animal Biodiversity of Vietnam in the Context of Globalization, 2007-12-13/2007-12-14, Hanoi (Viet Nam).

In Vietnam, for a number of specific geographical and historical reasons, the mountainous areas have preserved an exceptional diversity of wild and domestic animal species of high socio-economic interest. This endemic genetic diversity fosters a rapid response to environmental change in mostly isolated local communities, and in particular the constant adaptation of ecosystems common to humans, farmed and wild animal populations and pathogens. During a 2-year study carried out in several mountainous regions of North Vietnam near the Chinese border, we surveyed 1,697 breeders in 249 villages and gathered 5,815 biological samples among the 4 main domesticated species of food animals: chickens, cattle, buffaloes and goats. Serological analyses were carried out by ELISA on 726 sera in order to assess the prevalence of antibodies specific to 2 major diseases suspected to be present in the region: avian influenza (AI) and paste des petites ruminants (PPR). The results reported here reveal the presence of antibodies specific to AI, but not the H5N1 highly pathogenic strain, and the presence of antibodies specific to PPR, confirming that this disease never previously described in South East Asia is well present in this region with no mortality and little or no evidence of clinical cases. These are probably situations of co-evaluative epidemiological equilibrium between pathogen populations which may have lost their virulence and animal populations that have acquired genetic resistances over generations, either naturally or through genetic introgression from related wild species better adapted to such pathogens. These results suggest the need for more research, both short-, and more globally, long-term.

Mots-clés : ruminant; poulet; peste des petits ruminants; influenzavirus aviaire; relation hôte pathogène; résistance génétique; région d'altitude; adaptation; petits ruminants; grippe aviaire; viet nam

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