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Correlation of fruit fly (Diptera Tephritidae) infestation of major mango cultivars in Borgou (Benin) with abiotic and biotic factors and assessment of damage

Vayssières J.F., Korie S., Ayégnon D.. 2009. Crop Protection, 28 (6) : p. 477-488.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2009.01.010

Fruit flies associated with mango trees were monitored in two orchards in Benin using traps baited with methyl eugenol, terpinyl acetate and Torula during 2005-2006. Population fluctuations were analysed with respect to environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall in relation to different mango cultivars. Mangoes were sampled every two weeks during the two crop years, to assess the damage caused by these quarantine pests on ten main cultivars. Three native species of Ceratitis and a recently described new exotic species, Bactrocera invadens made up the complex of economically significant fruit flies associated with the mango tree in Borgou. Ceratitis species occurred during the dry season and the main species, Ceratitis cosyra, reached a peak at the end of the dry season. B. invadens populations were scarce during the dry season, but increased steadily from the end of April to reach a peak at the end of June during the rainy season. Regression analyses indicated that minimum- maximum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were the major climatic factors influencing fly populations. Daily rainfall was the factor showing the strongest positive correlation with B. invadens populations. Host plant was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations. Trapping and rearing data indicated that Ceratitis quinaria and Ceratitis silvestrii, were abundant only in the dry season, causing damage only to early cultivars. C. cosyra, also common during the dry season, attacked both early cultivars or mid season cultivars. A consistent population increase of B. invadens in the early rainy season caused considerable damage to mid season and late cultivars. The seasonal increase of the B. invadens population coincided with the fruiting period of the main mango cultivars in this Northern Guinean savannah, but mango availability influenced the population of this new invasive species only when the rains had arrived. Mean damage on mangoes for the two seasons and two studied orchards increased from 17% in early April to 73% at mid June. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : ceratitis; bactrocera; mangifera indica; bénin; bactrocera invandens; ceratitis cosyra; ceratitis anonae

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