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Recent changes in varietal diversity of rice in Guinea

Barry M.B., Diagne A., Sogbossi M.J., Pham J.L., Diawara S., Ahmadi N.. 2009. Plant Genetic Resources, 7 (1) : p. 63-71.

Rice varietal diversity was assessed in Guinea on the basis of surveys of 1679 farms located in 79 villages of the four natural regions of the country. The descriptors used were the number of known varieties, the number of cultivated varieties and Shannon's diversity and evenness index. On the basis of their use rates, varieties were classified as major or minor types at the village scale and as regionally and/or nationally eminent varieties at these scales. Varietal diversity was high, especially in forest Guinea and lower Guinea. Diversity pattern was typical of the subsistence farming system. The high share of local variety reflected the predominance of low management and low input cropping systems. The presence of improved varieties confirms farmers' openness to innovation and to the government policy of promoting improved varieties. Regional diversity reflected the agro-ecological diversity and specificities of each region, the history and the extent of rice-growing systems, and the importance of rice in the local diet. Recent dissemination of NERICA varieties has not caused any reduction of pre-existing varieties. The short-duration NERICA are mainly used as a complement to the long-duration traditional varieties and thus enhance varietal diversity. Risks of diversity erosion seem limited in the current setting of farming system and diversity structure. However, at the village level, the diversity pattern is fragile as the proportion of farmers who used each variety of the village is low and heterogeneous. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics of rice varietal diversity in Guinea is needed. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : conservation du matériel génétique; ressource génétique végétale; variation génétique; variété introduite; variété indigène; variété; oryza; guinée

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes

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