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Control of virus diseases in intensively cultivated vanilla plots of French Polynesia

Richard A., Farreyrol K., Rodier B., Leoce-Mouk-San K., Wong M., Pearson M.N., Grisoni M.. 2009. Crop Protection, 28 (10) : p. 870-877.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2009.06.003

The results of long term virus surveys in intensively cultivated vanilla plots in the Society Islands (French Polynesia), between 1999 and 2007 are reported here. The data confirmed a potential for high incidence of aphid borne viruses in particular Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) as well as the non vectored Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). CMV had a particularly high prevalence (over 30% of the plots) and could severely damage up to 50% of the vines before blossom. Severe outbreaks of CMV were correlated to the presence of the weed Commelina diffusa as a reservoir of virus and aphid vectors. The application in 2003 of simple prophylactic measures resulted in a sharp reduction of virus incidence in new plantations, compared to levels of virus diseases recorded in the previous decade. Indeed, at the beginning of fruiting, the incidence of aphid borne viruses did not exceeded 1.6% of vines for the 29 shade houses which adopted the virus prophylaxis. The three remaining shade houses were severely (20-50%) infected by WMV or CymMV because of the planting of virus-infected cuttings. These results demonstrate the benefit of implementing prophylaxis at the scale of an archipelago, and widen the possibilities of developing intensive cultivation of vanilla in other areas confronted with similar virus constraints.

Mots-clés : vanilla; virus mosaïque du concombre; potyvirus; Épidémiologie; contrôle de maladies; commelina; transmission des maladies; aphididae; polynésie française; france; vanilla tahitensis; cucumber mosaic virus

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