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Factors influencing the survivorship of the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb.) Thorne in two types of soil from banana plantations in Martinique

Chabrier C., Tixier P., Duyck P.F., Carles C., Quénéhervé P.. 2010. Applied Soil Ecology, 44 (2) : p. 116-123.

The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb.) Thorne, causes the most damage to bananas. To minimize nematicide applications, cropping systems that use fallow, crop rotation and clean planting material have been developed in the French West Indies. In order to optimize the benefit of the intercropping period, we studied the survivorship of R. similis in different soil types and conditions. We monitored the survivorship of calibrated populations of R. similis in the laboratory on a Nitisol and on an Andosol, two soils derived from volcanic ashes and pumices. We studied water potentials ranging from 0 to _700 kPa on undisturbed soil and on soil previously frozen to get rid of living nematodes. Mortality of adult R. similis decreased regularly, and was fairly well described by Teissier's model. In the previously frozen soils, R. similis survived longer in wet soils (half-life of 21-46 days at 0 to _5 kPa) than in dry soils (half-life of less than 10 days between _80 and _250 kPa). In contrast, in undisturbed soils, R. similis survived longer in dry soils: half-lives ranged from 57 days at _273 kPa to 17 days at water saturation in the Andosol, and 36 days at _660 kPa to 14 days at water saturation in the Nitisol. These results are consistent with the absence of anhydrobiosis in R. similis, unlike Pratylenchus coffeae. P. coffeae survivorship curves over time do not follow a model derived from exponential decrease like Teissier's model. These results also show that the recommended one year host-free period required to sanitize soils cannot be shortened without risk, even if flooding the soil could improve it. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : teneur en eau du sol; survie; nitosol; andosol; pratylenchus coffeae; radopholus similis; musa; martinique

Thématique : Ravageurs des plantes; Chimie et physique du sol

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