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Evaluacion de yuca (Manhiot esculenta Crantz) de altura para la produccion de almidon en Colombia

Escobar A., Dufour E., Sanchez T., Giraldo A., Dufour D.. 2009. Alimentos Hoy (18) : 5 p.. Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria en Alimentos. 7, 2009-09-06/2009-09-09, Bogota (Colombie).

Twelve varieties has been harvested in two villages of the department of Cauca, Colombia, Popayan and Cajibío (1740 m). The dry matter-content (DM), density, starch content, starch extraction yield, cyanide content, quality cooking of the roots, the functional properties of the starch has been evaluated in three different cropping seasons (12 ;13 ;14 months). Along these three months, the dried matter-content varies from 32 and 45% with a high medium of 38%. The starch content varies between 52 and 95% (x=82%). The starch extraction yields expressed in DM varies between 61 and 100% (x = 89, 3%). This study shows that all cassava altitude varieties have low cyanide content (30-360 ppm), most of them qualify to be eaten fresh. Globally, the varieties have good taste features, been recognized as the best ones the CM 7595-1 and SM 1707-41 clones. According to the functional properties of starch, varieties shows an average to high maxim viscosity to 1116 cP and a lower pasting average to 60°C,, compare with the found in the varieties of the Cassava World Collection (778 cP, 65.3°C, respectively) [1]. The parameters DM, density and starch extraction yield, as the sensory evaluation value are highly correlated together (t-Pearson; 0,01). All varieties studied showed different behaviors in maturity over time, some of them reach the 13 months (higher MS) and increase gradually over time. In 14 months, the best root yields per hectare are obtained for the varieties SM 1834-20, SM 1495-5, CM 7595-1 y SM 1058-13 with 32,1, 30,0, 30,0 y 27,3 T/ha respectively. The best starch production per hectare are given for the varieties SM 1834-20, CM 7595-1, SM 1498-4 y SM 1495-5 with 8,03 ; 7,85 ; 7,77 y 7,64 T/ha. It is important to remark that these last mentioned varieties are not the ones with the highest content in DM. The varieties SM 1713-25, SM 1498-4, SM 1707-41 and CM 7595-1 have the highest values of DM, with 44, 43,4, 41,7 y 41,0% respectively. The varieties showed different behaviors between Popayán and Cajibio due to the Edafo-climatic conditions. This study showed differences between varieties in characteristics such as yield, productivity of starch and acceptance by consumers and allowed to recommend the best varieties for producers, processors and consumers in the region of Cauca.

Mots-clés : manihot esculenta; manioc; colombie

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