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Characterisation of bananas and cooking bananas cultivated in Colombia : Morphological, physicochemical and functional differentiation between genetic groups, consumption patterns and preferences

Dufour D., Gibert O., Giraldo A., Sanchez T., Reynes M., Pain J.P., Gonzalez A., Fernandez A., Diaz A.. 2009. In : International Meeting Bio-ethanol: Status and Future, 25-27 March, 2009, Hanoi, Vietnam. s.l. : s.n., 47 p.. International Meeting Bio-ethanol: Status and Future, 2009-03-25/2009-03-27, Hanoi (Viet Nam).

The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of 23 varieties cultivated in Colombia were assessed. The study permitted to describe the phenotypic diversity and the heterogeneity within-bunches and within-hands of 47 plants. A sampling strategy was suggested accordingly. Dry matter content helped to significantly discriminate consumption groups or subgroups of bananas (P <_ 0.01): FHIA dessert hybrids (24.6%) < dessert bananas (29.4%) < non plantain cooking bananas (32.0%) < FHIA cooking hybrids (34.2%) < plantains (41.1%). Plantain group showed significantly lower mineral contents for calcium and magnesium on dry weight basis (db) than the dessert banana genetic group, with 8.4 and 90.7 mg/100g db respectively. Wide variation in potassium contents was revealed among varieties (814 to 1550 mg/100g db). FHIA dessert hybrid group showed the highest content with an average amount of 1451 mg/100g db. Onset temperature of starches varied from 59.7 to 67.8°C and permitted to significantly differentiate (P <_ 0.01) dessert bananas (63.2°C), from non plantain cooking bananas (65.7°C), from FHIA hybrids (66.6°C) and plantains (67.1°C). FHIA hybrids (cooking and dessert) are significantly discriminated from dessert banana landraces but not from cooking groups (P<_ 0.01). The amylose content of starches varied from 15.4% to 24.9%. A strong relationship was demonstrated between the consumption mode and the amylose content measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Most amylose contents of dessert bananas were below 19% whereas cooking bananas percentages were higher than 21%. Rheological properties were studied using a standardised protocol by Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) irrespective to the [alpha]amylase content of the flour using silver nitrate 0.002M. Flour pasting temperature was relevant to differentiate dessert bananas (69.5°C) from FHIA dessert hybrids and non plantain cooking bananas (72.8°C), from cooking hybrids and plantains (75.8°C). The cooking ability criterion also helped to differentiate dessert bananas and FHIA hybrids (236s) from cooking bananas (183s) at P<_0.01. The investigation permitted to better understand the selection of the varieties by the producers and the uses by consumers according to the consumption mode. A close relation between selection and uses of cultivars with the morphological, physicochemical and rheological specificities were highlighted for the cultivated Musaceae. Some clones were also pointed out to have a substantial interest for the industry.

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