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Effect of salinity on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content in the grains of three fragrant rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in Camargue (France)

Gay F., Maraval I., Roques S., Günata Z., Boulanger R., Audebert A., Mestres C.. 2010. Field Crops Research, 117 (1) : p. 154-160.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2010.02.008

Aromatic quality of rice grains is known to vary greatly with environmental factors and cultivation methods. Among the environmental factors, soil salinity is thought to have a positive impact on the content of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in grains, the key volatile compound of rice aroma. This study compared 2AP content in grains of three improved fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties grown in two fields, differing mainly in their soil salinity level. The impact of salinity on yield and main yield components was also investigated to understand the relationship between aromatic quality and yield build-up. Soil salinity was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of soil solution samples extracted every week. 2AP content in grains was determined by a newly developed stable isotope dilution method involving solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC MS/MS analysis. The results showed an increase of 2AP content in grains with salinity for the three varieties. The relationship between 2AP and mean EC of the crop fitted a single model for the three varieties (R2 = 0.728). In contrast, the impact of salinity on yield and yield components differed greatly between the three varieties. One variety appeared to be very sensitive to salt stress, with significant yield loss up to 40%, while the two other varieties proved to be resistant to the salinity levels experienced by the plants, with no significant yield loss or even higher yields in saline conditions. Nevertheless, the three varieties presented a significant negative correlation between 1000 grain weight (TGW) and the mean EC of the crop, and between TGW and 2AP content. It was concluded that the increase of 2AP content with salinity resulted partially from a 2AP concentration mechanism in smaller size grains. The direct effect of salinity on 2AP synthesis through stimulation of the proline metabolism is further discussed.

Mots-clés : oryza sativa; composé de la flaveur; rendement des cultures; salinité; qualité; riz; grain; propriété organoleptique; tolérance au sel; gaba; proline; france; languedoc-roussillon; camargue

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