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Genetic structure among sorghum landraces as revealed by morphological variation and microsatellite markers in three agroclimatic regions of Burkina Faso

Barro-Kondombo C.P., Sagnard F., Chantereau J., Deu M., Vom Brocke K., Durand P.Y., Gozé E., Zongo J.D.. 2010. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 120 (8) : p. 1511-1523.

DOI: 10.1007/s00122-010-1272-2

Diversity among 124 sorghum landraces from 10 villages surveyed in 3 regions of Burkina Faso covering different agroecological zones was assessed by 28 agromorphological traits and 29 microsatellite markers. 94.4% of the landraces collected belonged to the botanical race guinea (consisting of 96.6% guinea gambicum and 3.4% guinea margaritiferum), 74.2% had white kernels, 13.7% had orange and 12.1% had red kernels. Compared to the ''village nested within zone'' factor, the ''variety nested within village within zone'' factor predominately contributed to the diversity pattern for all nine statistically analysed quantitative traits. The multivariate analyses performed on ten morphological traits identified five landrace groups, and of these, the red kernel sorghum types appeared the most homogenous. 2 to 17 alleles were detected per locus with a mean 4.9 alleles per locus and a gene diversity (He) of 0.37. Landraces from the sub- Sahelian zone had the highest gene diversity (He = 0.38). Cluster analysis revealed that the diversity was weakly stratified and could not be explained by any biophysical criteria. One homogenous guinea margaritiferum group was distinguished from other guinea landraces. The red kernel type appeared to be genetically distinct from all other guinea landraces. The kernel colour was the principal structuring factor. This is an example of a homogeneous group of varieties selected for a specific use (for local beer preparation), mainly grown around the households in compound fields, and presenting particular agromorphological and genetic traits. This is the most original feature of sorghum diversity in Burkina Faso and should be the focus of special conservation efforts.

Mots-clés : sorghum; sorghum bicolor; génétique des populations; variété indigène; marqueur génétique; microsatellite; variation génétique; anatomie végétale; zone agroclimatique; burkina faso; sahel

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