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An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels in the Sudan

Khalafalla A.I., Saeed I.K., Ali Y.H., Abdurrahman M.B., Kwiatek O., Libeau G., Obeida A.A., Abbas Z.. 2010. Acta Tropica, 116 (2) : p. 161-165.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.08.002

In mid-August 2004, an outbreak of a previously unknown fatal disease of camels was reported to Kassala State veterinary authorities. Several areas in the state were visited during August-October 2004 to collect epidemiological data and specimens for diagnosis. Clinically the disease was characterized by sudden death of apparently healthy animals and yellowish and later bloody diarrhea and abortion. The disease outbreaks coincided with the seasonal movement of animals towards autumn green pasture. Death was always sudden and proceeded with colic and difficulty in respiration. Mortality rate ranged between 0% and 50% and vary in accordance with the area with a mean of 7.4%. More than 80% of deaths were in pregnant and recently-delivered she-camels. All age, sex and breed groups were affected but more than 50% of deaths were reported in adult animals in comparison to calves and young camels. The main post-mortem findings include lung congestion and consolidation, paleness and fragility of liver, enlarged lymph nodes and congestion and hemorrhage of small intestine and stomach. Agar gel diffusion test (AGDT), RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture gave positive results for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a virus belonging to the Morbillivirus, Genus, member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The effect of this new devastating disease on camel production in the affected area was discussed as well as proposals for future research.

Mots-clés : dromadaire; peste des petits ruminants; virus peste petits ruminants; Épidémiologie; soudan; camelus dromedarius

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