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Evolution of endogenous sequences of Banana Streak Virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

Gayral P., Blondin L., Guidolin O., Carreel F., Hippolyte I., Perrier X., Iskra Caruana M.L.. 2010. Journal of Virology, 84 (14) : p. 7346-7359.

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00401-10

Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species--GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)--through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions --matK and trnL-trnF-- as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

Mots-clés : musa; phylogénie; Évolution; séquence nucléotidique; génome; microsatellite; relation hôte parasite; biodiversité; virus des végétaux; banana streak virus; endovirus; pararétrovirus

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