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Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV

Maminiaina O.F., Gil P., Briand F.X., Albina E., Keita D., Harentsoaniaina R.A., Chevalier V., Lancelot R., Martinez D., Rakotondravao R., Rajaonarison J.J., Koko M., Andriantsimahavandy A.A., Jestin V., Servan de Almeida R.. 2010. PloS One, 5 (11) : 12 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013987

In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

Mots-clés : virus maladie de newcastle; maladie de newcastle; génotype; identification; biologie moléculaire; pouvoir pathogène; phylogénie; séquence nucléotidique; vaccination; zoonose; paramyxovirus aviaire; madagascar

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