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Changing the soil surface management in vineyards: Immediate and delayed effects on the growth and yield of grapevine

Ripoche A., Metay A., Celette F., Gary C.. 2011. Plant and Soil, 339 (1) : p. 259-271.

In a changing context, farmers adapt their cropping systems and, in this respect, the response time of the soil-crop system (changes in the soil resources and in the grapevine vegetative or reproductive development) has to be considered to maintain its agronomic performances. This is particularly true for perennial crops such as grapevine. This paper aims to analyse the short- and long-term effects of changes in soil surface management on grapevine performances. Avineyard in which bare soil inter-rows had been compared with a tall fescue intercrop since 2002 had each of these treatments split into two in 2007, with half of the intercrop being ploughed in and half of the bare soil being sown with fescue, resulting in four treatments whose effects were studied in 2008-2009. Grapevine growth, yield formation and grape quality were assessed. After intercrop destruction, grapevine vegetative growth was enhanced by the mineralization of organic matter from the first year, whereas after intercrop introduction, the competition for soil resources affected growth only in the second year. The grape yield depended on the number of bunches, elaborated the year before. One year after the change in soil surface management, the ranking of yield was as follows: permanent intercrop < intercrop destroyed < intercrop introduced < bare soil. The second year, this ranking altered (still in relation to the number of bunches) to: intercrop introduced < permanent intercrop < bare soil=intercrop destroyed. This study shows that the response times of the processes of grapevine vegetative growth and yield formation to a change in the cropping system vary from one to two years, and therefore, have to be considered carefully to manage the cropping system well. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : festuca; rendement des cultures; croissance; relation plante sol; culture intercalaire; vitis vinifera; languedoc-roussillon

Thématique : Systèmes et modes de culture; Physiologie végétale : croissance et développement; Chimie et physique du sol

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