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Cropping calendar options for rice-wheat production systems at high-altitudes

Shrestha S.P., Asch F., Dingkuhn M., Becker M.. 2011. Field Crops Research, 121 (1) : p. 158-167.

The onset of rains during dry to wet transition fallow periods in rice-wheat production systems in Nepal cause substantial losses of soil nitrogen if the system is improperly managed. To make use of available nutrients and water, this transition period can either be shortened by early rice planting, or be extended by late planting, allowing a third crop to be grown. Shifting planting dates would require rice genotypes adapted to the different environments. Crop duration is influenced by both vegetative and reproductive development, which in turn is influenced by the photo-thermal environment and genotypic responses to it. An experiment was conducted to derive genotypic photo-thermal constants from phenological observations on diverse rice cultivars, which were then applied to the concept of the phenological model RIDEV to design cropping calendar options. Environmental effects on variation of crop duration were determined by planting at different dates. The risk of yield losses to sterility caused by low temperatures was estimated by simulation. Thirty-one different genotypes of rice were planted at 8 dates in 15-day intervals starting 27 April 2004 at the experimental field of the Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Nepal. The shortest duration to flowering was observed for planting dates in late May and early June. Simulation of flowering dates with RIDEV yielded correct results only for the early planting dates. For later planting dates simulated flowering dates showed an increasing deviation from the observed. In most cultivars, minimum air temperature below 18 ?C during booting to heading stages caused near-total spikelet sterility and a specific delay in flowering. However, the chilling tolerant cultivars Chomrong and Machhapuchre-3 cultivated at high altitude showed less than 30% spikelet sterility even at 15 ?C. Simulating crop durations with the derived thermal constants allowed evaluating the different calendar options for high altitude systems. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : oryza sativa; népal; oryza sativa indica; oryza sativa japonica

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Culture des plantes; Physiologie végétale : croissance et développement

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