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Cotton: Taxonomy, origin and domestication

Giband M., Dessauw D., Barroso P.A.V.. 2010. In : Wakelyn Phillip J. (ed.), Chaudhry M. Rafiq (ed.). Cotton: Technology for the 21st century. Washington : ICAC, p. 5-17.

Cotton belongs to the genus Gossypium L., which comprises 50 species, 45 of which are diploid, the remaining five being tetraploid. Two A-genome diploid and two AD-genome allotetraploid species are grown for their lint. The centre of origin of the genus is unknown, but the primary centres of diversity rest in north-east Africa and Arabia, Australia, and Mexico. Tetraploid cotton would have arisen on the American continent from a unique hybridization event, which was then followed by diversification. Archaeological evidence point out to independent centres of domestication and diversification in the Old- and New World. Following early dispersion and diversification of tetraploid cottons, selection pressure has greatly reduced the genetic diversity of modern varieties.

Mots-clés : gossypium

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