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Assessment of nematicidal properties and phytochemical screening of neem seed formulations using Radopholus similis, parasitic nematode of plantain in Cameroon

Kosma P., Ambang Z., Begoude B.A.D., Ten Hoopen G.M., Kuaté J., Akoa A.. 2011. Crop Protection, 30 (6) : p. 733-738.

Phytoparasitic nematodes of banana and plantain make one of the major constraints to sustainable banana and plantain production. The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, common in Cameroon is of particular importance where most smallholder farmers are unaware of this "hidden enemy". In intensive plantain plantations, nematicides are often used as a primary means of control. Despite their efficacy, chemical pesticides are harmful to the environment and human health. The objective of this study was to assess the nematicidal properties of four neem seed formulations (raw neem seed powder (NSP); organic, watery and essential oil extracts) and to determine the phytochemical properties of these extracts. Alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and steroids were found in all three extracts, tannins in the organic and essential oils extracts and phenols only in the essential oils extract. Using five different concentrations of each of the three extracts as well as NSP, the nematicidal properties of all four formulations was confirmed. The NSP killed 100% of all nematodes at the lowest concentration tested, 10 mgml_1, after 48 h. The in vivo test using two plantain varieties, Essong and Big Ebanga showed that all neem seed formulations increased plant growth and reduced nematode populations significantly when compared with the control. Since NSP seems to perform as well or even better than the extracts, it could provide farmers with a simple, low cost alternative for the control of banana and plantain nematodes. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : extrait d'origine végétale; azadirachta indica; extrait de neem; musa; radopholus similis; cameroun

Thématique : Ravageurs des plantes; Traitement des produits agricoles non alimentaires

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