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Selection of new varieties on-station and on-farm in Côte d'Ivoire

Tahi G.M., Lachenaud P., N'Guessan K.F., N'goran N.K.J., Pokou N.D., Kébé B.I., Paulin D., Cilas C., Eskes A.. 2011. In : Eskes Albertus (ed.). Collaborative and participatory approaches to cocoa variety improvement : final report of the CFC/ICCO/Biodiversity international project on "Cocoa productivity and quality improvement: a participatory approach" (2004-2010). Amsterdam : CFC, p. 42-58. (CFC Technical paper, 59).

The CFC/ICCO/Bioversity project on "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach" represents an effort to: - Validate on-farm improved varieties selected by the Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques (CNRA); - Explore the results obtained in the project on "Cocoa Germplasm Utilization and Conservation: a Global Approach"; - Promote exchange of varieties with resistance to Phytophthora pod rot. The activities undertaken over the 5-year period (2004-09) included: - On-station selection of the following trials: two clone trials, two intra-population hybrid trials, three hybrid trials, and the establishment of a regional hybrid trial; - On-farm survey about the planting materials used by the farmers and the establishment of 36 demonstration plots on farms including 15 improved varieties selected by CNRA and 15 farmers' selections. The traits evaluated were yield, yield efficiency, percentage of rotten pods and the average weight of one pod. The analyses of the on-station trials showed highly significant differences among the genotypes tested, many of which showed superiority with regard to the control varieties. Genetic parameters were calculated and discussed for the intra-population hybrid trials. This permitted to apply a selection index to increase selection efficiency in these trials. A list of elite hybrids that are candidates for multilocation variety trials has been established. The first results of the Regional Variety Trials shows superiority of the Côte d'Ivoire hybrids for vigour and precocity compared to the introduced varieties. The farm survey included 1133 farmers over the six main cocoa-producing regions. The results show that most farmers use their own farm or neighbours' farms as sources of new planting materials and that yield and precocity are the main selection criteria. The relevance of establishing demonstration plots on-farm to stimulate the farmers to adopt breeders' selections as well as to identify superior farm selections is presented. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : phytophthora; résistance aux maladies; vigueur; rendement des cultures; caractère agronomique; sélection; clone; hybride; expérimentation; variété; amélioration des plantes; theobroma cacao; cameroun; ghana; côte d'ivoire

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Culture des plantes; Maladies des plantes

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