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Hydrogen peroxide formation in cacao tissues infected by the hemibiotrophicfungus Moniliophthora perniciosa

Villela Dias C., Mendes J.S., Dos Santos A.C., Pirovani C.P., Da Silva Gesteira A., Micheli F., Peres Gramacho K., Hammerstone J., Mazzafera P., Cézar de Mattos Cascardo J.. 2011. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49 (8) : p. 917-922.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.05.004

In plantepathogen interaction, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may play a dual role: its accumulation inhibits the growth of biotrophic pathogens, while it could help the infection/colonization process of plant by necrotrophic pathogens. One of the possible pathways of H2O2 production involves oxalic acid (Oxa) degradation by apoplastic oxalate oxidase. Here, we analyzed the production of H2O2, the presence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the content of Oxa and ascorbic acid (Asa) e the main precursor of Oxa in plants e in susceptible and resistant cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) infected by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also quantified the transcript level of ascorbate peroxidase (Apx), germin-like oxalate oxidase (Glp) and dehydroascorbate reductase (Dhar) by RT-qPCR.We report that the CaOx crystal amount and the H2O2 levels in the two varieties present distinct temporal and genotypedependent patterns. Susceptible variety accumulated more CaOx crystals than the resistant one, and the dissolution of these crystals occurred in the early infection steps and in the final stage of the disease in the resistant and the susceptible variety, respectively. High expression of the Glp and accumulation of Oxa were observed in the resistant variety. The content of Asa increased in the inoculated susceptible variety, but remained constant in the resistant one. The susceptible variety presented reduced Dhar expression. The role of H2O2 and its formation from Oxa via Apx and Glp in resistant and susceptible variety infected by M. perniciosa were discussed.

Mots-clés : theobroma cacao; moniliophthora; acide ascorbique; acide oxalique; péroxyde d'hydrogène; mécanisme de défense cellulaire; résistance aux maladies; physiologie végétale; oxalate; expression des gènes; bahia; moniliophthora perniciosa

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