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Effects of four organic amendments on banana parasitic nematodes and soil nematode communities

Tabarant P., Villenave C., Risède J.M., Roger-Estrade J., Thuriès L., Dorel M.. 2011. Applied Soil Ecology, 49 (1) : p. 59-67.

DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.07.001

Plant-parasitic nematodes are injurious crop pests that have been managed mainly by chemical nematicides. However, safe and alternative methods such as those based on organic materials need to be developed. Our study has evaluated (i) the effects of four organic amendments with different biochemical compositions that are abundantly produced in the study area (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) on soil nematode communities and (ii) some of the suppression mechanisms of banana parasitic nematodes, especially those involving the soil food web. This study is based on a microcosm experiment comparing sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane sludge, plant residues and sewage sludge. All amendments except sewage sludge decreased the root abundances of plant-parasitic nematodes, by 96% in the case of sugarcane bagasse. For this treatment, soil densities of carnivorous nematodes were six times higher than the treatments without organic amendment. Plant residues and bagasse were mainly composed of materials that are difficult to decompose, namely cellulose and lignins. These organic materials favored a fungal decomposition pathway and permitted development of carnivorous nematode populations and increased the Channel Index (CI). Pratylenchus coffeae control after sugarcane refinery sludge application remains unexplained. Lastly, sewage sludge, composed mainly of easily degradable compounds, did not permit nematode control, and only bacterivorous nematode populations were enhanced by this treatment.

Mots-clés : musa; amendement organique; nématode des plantes; nématode à vie libre; lutte biologique; lignine; cellulose; faune du sol; déchet organique; bagasse; boue résiduaire; résidu de récolte; agroécosystème; guadeloupe; france

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