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Insecticide use and competition shape the genetic diversity of the aphid Aphis gossypii in a cotton-growing landscape

Brévault T., Carletto J., Tribot J., Vanlerberghe-Masutti F.. 2011. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101 (4) : p. 407-413.

DOI: 10.1017/S0007485310000635

Field populations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, are structured into geographically widespread host races. In the cotton-producing regions of West and Central Africa (WCA), two genotypes have been repeatedly detected within the cotton host race, one of which (Burk1) is prevalent (>90%) and resistant to several insecticides, as opposed to the second one (Ivo). Here, we conducted whole plant and field cage experiments to test hypotheses for such low genetic diversity, including selection from insecticide treatments, interclonal competition and adaptation to host plant, or climatic conditions. To assess the genetic diversity of immigrant aphids, alatae were trapped and collected on cotton and relay host plants (okra and roselle) in the early cropping season. Individuals were genotyped at eight specific microsatellite loci and characterized by a multilocus genotype (MLG). When independently transferred from cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) leaf discs to whole plants (G. hirsutum and G. arboreum, roselle and okra), Ivo and Burk1 performed equally well. When concurrently transferred from cotton leaf discs to the same plant species, Ivo performed better than Burk1, indicating that competition favoured Ivo. This was also the case on G. hirsutum growing outdoors. Conversely, Burk1 prevailed when cotton plants were sprayed with insecticides. In experiments where aphids were allowed to move to neighbouring plants, Burk1 was better represented than Ivo on lowpopulated plants, suggesting that dispersal may be a way to avoid competition on crowded plants. Most cotton aphids collected on cotton or relay host plants in the early cropping season were Burk1 (> 90%), indicating high dispersal ability and, probably reflecting high frequency on host plants from which they dispersed. In the agricultural landscape of WCA, the use of broad-range insecticides on both cotton and relay host plants has led to the prevalence of one genotype of A. gossypii resistant to different classes of insecticides. Deployment of widespread and integrated pest management strategies are needed to restore cotton aphid control.

Mots-clés : gossypium hirsutum; insecticide; aphididae; aphis gossypii; résistance aux insecticides; génotype; variation génétique; gestion intégrée des ravageurs; hôte intermédiaire; plante hôte; cameroun

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