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How young trees cope with removal of whole or parts of shoots: an analysis of local and distant responses to pruning in 1-year-old apple (Malus X domestica; Rosaceae) trees

Fumey D., Lauri P.E., Guédon Y., Godin C., Costes E.. 2011. American Journal of Botany, 98 (11) : p. 1737-1751.

Premise of study: Manipulation of tree architecture by pruning provides an experimental context to analyze architectural plasticity resulting from competition between developing organs. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the removal of all or part of shoots through pruning on the redistribution of growth and fl owering at spatial and temporal levels. o Methods: Two types of pruning cuts were applied: (1) heading cuts of either the main stem or laterals and (2) thinning cuts (i.e., complete removal) of laterals. These two types of cuts were applied in summer and winter on 1-yr-old cultivars of Fuji and Braeburn apple trees. Tree topology and geometry were described over 3 years, and responses were analyzed for both local and distant scales. o Results: Heading cuts induced quasi-deterministic local responses on pruned axes, whereas responses to thinning cuts were more variable. For the main stem and laterals, responses over greater spatial and temporal scales were highlighted with (1) stronger growth the year after summer pruning and (2) modifi cation of branching and fl owering along the unpruned parts after winter pruning. o Conclusions: Pruning typically induced growth redistribution toward traumatic reiterations and enhanced growth of the remaining unpruned axes with a concomitant decrease of fl owering and cambial growth. Although results could be interpreted in relation to the root - shoot balance, tree responses appeared highly cultivar-specific. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : croissance; floraison; ramification; anatomie végétale; taille; malus pumila; languedoc-roussillon

Thématique : Anatomie et morphologie des plantes; Physiologie végétale : croissance et développement; Physiologie végétale : reproduction

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