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Fitness effects of derived deleterious mutations in four closely related wild tomato species with spatial structure

Tellier A., Fischer I., Merino C., Xia H., Camus-Kulandaivelu L., Stadler T., Stephan W.. 2011. Heredity, 107 (3) : p. 189-199.

A key issue in evolutionary biology is an improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms by which species adapt to various environments. Using DNA sequence data, it is possible to quantify the number of adaptive and deleterious mutations, and the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations (its mean and variance) by simultaneously taking into account the demography of a given species.We investigated how selection functions at eight housekeeping genes of four closely related, outcrossing species of wild tomatoes that are native to diverse environments in western South America (Solanum arcanum, S. chilense, S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum). We found little evidence for adaptive mutations but pervasive evidence for strong purifying selection in coding regions of the four species. In contrast, the strength of purifying selection seems to vary among the four species in non-coding (NC) regions (introns). Using FST-based measures of fixation in subdivided populations, we suggest that weak purifying selection has affected the NC regions of S. habrochaites, S. chilense and S. peruvianum. In contrast, NC regions in S. arcanum show a distribution of fitness effects with mutations being either nearly neutral or very strongly deleterious. These results suggest that closely related species with similar genetic backgrounds but experiencing contrasting environments differ in the variance of deleterious fitness effects. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : solanum lycopersicum; solanum habrochaites; solanum peruvianum; solanum; Équateur; chili; pérou; solanum chilense; solanum arcanum

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Taxonomie végétale et phyto-géographie

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