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The shoot apical meristem of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis; Arecaceae) : Developmental progression and dynamics

Jouannic S., Lartaud M., Hervé J., Collin M., Orieux Y., Verdeil J.L., Tregear J.. 2011. Annals of Botany, 108 (8) : p. 1477-1487.

DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcr019

Background and Aims Oil palm, an unbranched perennial monocotyledon, possesses a single shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is responsible for the initiation of the entire above-ground structure of the plant. To compare the palm SAM structure with those of other monocots and to study variations in its structure throughout the life of the plant, its organization was characterized from the embryonic stage to that of the reproductive plant. Methods SAM structure was studied by a combination of stained histological sections, light and confocal microscopy, and serial section-based three-dimensional reconstructions. Key Results The oil palm SAM is characterized by two developmental phases: a juvenile phase with a single tunica-corpus structure displaying a gradual increase in size; and a mature phase characterized by a stable size, a modified shape and an established histological zonation pattern. In mature plants, fluctuations in SAM shape and volume occur, mainly as a consequence of changes in the central zone, possibly in relation to leaf initiation. Conclusions Development of the oil palm SAM is characterized by a juvenile to mature phase transition accompanied by establishment of a zonal pattern and modified shape. SAM zonation is dynamic during the plastochron period and displays distinct features compared with other monocots.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; méristème apical; pousse; histology [en]; embryon végétal; développement biologique; stade de développement végétal; languedoc-roussillon; costa rica; france

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