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Crop genetic resources as a global commons: Challenges in international law and governance

Halewood M. (ed.), López Noriega I. (ed.), Louafi S. (ed.). 2013. Londres : Earthscan Publications, 415 p..

Présentation de l'éditeur : Farmers have engaged in collective systems of conservation and innovation - improving crops and sharing their reproductive materials - since the earliest plant domestications. Relatively open flows of plant germplasm attended the early spread of agriculture; they continued in the wake of (and were driven by) imperialism, colonization, emigration, trade, development assistance and climate change. As crops have moved around the world, and agricultural innovation and production systems have expanded, so too has the scope and coverage of pools of shared plant genetic resources that support those systems. The range of actors involved in their conservation and use has also increased dramatically. This book addresses how the collective pooling and management of shared plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can be supported through laws regulating access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their use. Since the most important recent development in the field has been the creation of the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, many of the chapters in this book will focus on the architecture and functioning of that system. The book analyzes tensions that are threatening to undermine the potential of access and benefit-sharing laws to support the collective pooling of plant genetic resources, and identifies opportunities to address those tensions in ways that could increase the scope, utility and sustainability of the global crop commons. Contents: 1. The global crop commons and access and benefit-sharing laws: examining the limits of policy support for the collective pooling and management of plant genetic resources (Michael Halewood, Isabel López Noriega, Selim Louafi). Part 1: Setting the scene: countries' interdependence on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the imperative of international cooperation. 2. Demonstrating interdependence on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. 3. Flows of crop germplasm into and out of China. 4. Crop and forage genetic resources: international interdependence in the face of climate change. 5. Changing rates of acquisition of plant genetic resources by international gene banks: setting the scene to monitor an impact of the International Treaty. Part 2: The history and design of the International Treaty's multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing. 6. Brief history of the negotiations of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 7. The design and mechanics of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing. 8. Protecting the interests of the multilateral system under the Standard Material Transfer Agreement: the third party beneficiary. 9. Plant genetic resources under the management and control of the contracting parties and in the public domain: how rich is the ITPGRFA's multilateral system?. 10. Efforts to get the multilateral system up and running: a review of activities coordinated by the Treaty's Secretariat (Selim Louafi, Shakeel Bhatti). Part 3: Critical reflections. 11. Assessment of progress to make the multilateral system functional: incentives and challenges at the country level. 12. From negotiations to implementation: global review of achievements, bottlenecks and opportunities for the Treaty in general, and the multilateral system in particular. 13. The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing: could it have been constructed another way?. 14. The moving scope of Annex 1: the list of crops covered under the multilateral system; 15. Building a global information system in support of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (Caroline Ker, Myriam Sanou, Selim Louafi). 16. Collective action challenges in the implementation of the multilateral system of the International Treaty: what roles for the CGIAR centres? (Seli...

Mots-clés : législation de l'environnement; gestion des ressources naturelles; utilisation; changement climatique; conventions environnementales; histoire; accord international; conservation des ressources; plante de culture; ressource génétique végétale; monde

Thématique : Conservation de la nature et ressources foncières; Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Législation

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